Tuesday, August 25, 2020

Important Female Artists of the Surrealist Movement

Significant Female Artists of the Surrealist Movement Established in 1924 by author and artist Andrã © Breton, the Surrealist bunch was involved specialists whom Breton had handpicked. Notwithstanding, the developments thoughts, which concentrated on uncovering the subliminal through activities like programmed drawing, were not contained to the chosen few whom Breton whimsically preferred or evaded. Its impact was worldwide and discovered its most grounded stations in Mexico, the United States, Europe, and Northern Africa. Due to Surrealism’s notoriety as a male control, female craftsmen are frequently worked out of its story. However crafted by these five female craftsmen overturns the conventional story about Surrealism’s center around externalizing the female body, and their support in the development is demonstration of the way that the Surrealist ethos was more sweeping than craftsmanship history has recently accepted. Leonor Fini Leonor Fini was conceived in Argentina in 1907, however she spent her childhood in Trieste, Italy after her mom fled a miserable union with Fini’s father. As a grown-up, Fini turned out to be very much familiar with the Surrealist bunch in Paris, get to know figures, for example, Max Ernst and Dorothea Tanning. Her work was displayed in MoMA’s original 1937 â€Å"Fantastic Art, Dada, and Surrealism† appear. Fini was taken by the possibility of the androgyne, with which she recognized. Her way of life was with regards to her eccentric way to deal with sexual orientation, as she lived in a menagetrois with two men for more than forty years. She spent summers in a once-over mansion on Corsica, where she gave expound ensemble parties, for which her visitors would get ready for months. <img information srcset=https://www.thoughtco.com/thmb/YBgFgqC-taFErgMeb79a6Nm6CkA=/300x0/filters:no_upscale():max_bytes(150000):strip_icc()/GettyImages-475770256-5c9158ddc9e77c00014a9e47.jpg 300w, https://www.thoughtco.com/thmb/SaqPEUHz2KgRbNAuIJ0otR08dX0=/813x0/filters:no_upscale():max_bytes(150000):strip_icc()/GettyImages-475770256-5c9158ddc9e77c00014a9e47.jpg 813w, https://www.thoughtco.com/thmb/u9s2sTqdLS7Torbxn-nresazE6g=/1326x0/filters:no_upscale():max_bytes(150000):strip_icc()/GettyImages-475770256-5c9158ddc9e77c00014a9e47.jpg 1326w, https://www.thoughtco.com/thmb/rqhzeb-DE0PXrlWgl8xSG7OFFL4=/2354x0/filters:no_upscale():max_bytes(150000):strip_icc()/GettyImages-475770256-5c9158ddc9e77c00014a9e47.jpg 2354w information src=https://www.thoughtco.com/thmb/pXlnuUXdIyOtVPFq-iijahuU6fA=/3564x2354/filters:no_upscale():max_bytes(150000):strip_icc()/GettyImages-475770256-5c9158ddc9e77c00014a9e47.jpg src=//:0 alt=Leonor Fini with one of her artworks class=lazyload information click-tracked=true information img-lightbox=true information expand=300 id=mntl-sc-square image_1-0-9 information following container=true /> Leonor Fini with one of her artworks. Francis Apesteguy/Getty Images Finis work frequently highlighted female heroes in places of predominance. She showed sexual fiction and structured ensembles for her friends’ plays. She would likewise plan her own outfits for get-togethers. Her frequently over-the-top mental self view was captured by a portion of the era’s most notable picture takers, including Carl van Vechten. Maybe Fini’s most prominent business achievement was in structuring the fragrance bottle for Elsa Schiaparellis â€Å"Shocking† scent. The container was made to resemble the stripped middle of a lady; the plan has been mirrored for quite a long time. Dorothea Tanning Dorothea Tanning was conceived in 1911 and experienced childhood in Galesburg, Illinois, the girl of Swedish workers. Smothered by an exacting youth, the youthful Tanning got away into writing, getting familiar with the universe of European expressions and letters through books. Sure that she was bound to turn into a craftsman, Tanning dropped out of the Art Institute of Chicago for living in New York. MoMA’s 1937 â€Å"Fantastic Art, Dada, and Surrealism† established her responsibility to Surrealism. It was not until years after the fact that she turned out to be near a portion of its key characters, when many moved to New York to get away from the developing antagonistic vibe in Europe because of the Second World War. <img information srcset=https://www.thoughtco.com/thmb/yL33oFbUShsgEmB8u4zZR7GPezE=/300x0/filters:no_upscale():max_bytes(150000):strip_icc()/GettyImages-138210081-5c91579346e0fb000146ae0e.jpg 300w, https://www.thoughtco.com/thmb/w82HPsZ6CsoSZihLo_g0B-4q8K4=/1099x0/filters:no_upscale():max_bytes(150000):strip_icc()/GettyImages-138210081-5c91579346e0fb000146ae0e.jpg 1099w, https://www.thoughtco.com/thmb/hzwRy0T3m1KoTDCdjnN4-I5lXz0=/1898x0/filters:no_upscale():max_bytes(150000):strip_icc()/GettyImages-138210081-5c91579346e0fb000146ae0e.jpg 1898w, https://www.thoughtco.com/thmb/YO4oHoCpK9q7nGxjTCrIclLwOiU=/3496x0/filters:no_upscale():max_bytes(150000):strip_icc()/GettyImages-138210081-5c91579346e0fb000146ae0e.jpg 3496w information src=https://www.thoughtco.com/thmb/dcrpMzgmPg8JZvuZooP0EAdSHWc=/3736x3496/filters:no_upscale():max_bytes(150000):strip_icc()/GettyImages-138210081-5c91579346e0fb000146ae0e.jpg src=//:0 alt=Portrait of Dorothea Tanning class=lazyload information click-tracked=true information img-lightbox=true information expand=300 id=mntl-sc-square image_1-0-19 information following container=true /> Representation of Dorothea Tanning, 1955.  Michael Ochs Archives/Getty Images When visiting Tanning’s studio in the interest of his better half Peggy Guggenheim’s â€Å"Art of this Century† Gallery, Max Ernst met Tanning and was intrigued with her work. They turned out to be quick companions, and in the long run wedded in 1946, after Ernst had separated from Guggenheim. The couple moved to Sedona, Arizona and lived among a partner of individual Surrealists. Tanning’s yield was changed, as her profession traversed around eighty years. In spite of the fact that she is maybe most popular for her compositions, Tanning additionally went to outfit configuration, figure, exposition, and verse. She has a huge group of work comprising of extravagant humanoid models, which she was known to use in establishments all through the 1970s. She passed on in 2012 at age 101. Leonora Carrington Leonora Carrington was conceived in the United Kingdom in 1917. She quickly went to the Chelsea School of Art, at that point moved to Londons Ozenfant Academy of Fine Arts. She met Max Ernst in her mid twenties and before long moved with him toward the south of France. Ernst was captured by the French experts for being an unfriendly outsider and later by the Nazis for delivering degenerate workmanship. Carrington endured a mental meltdown and was hospitalized at a refuge in Spain. Her lone ways to get out was to wed, so she wedded a Mexican negotiator and left for the United States, where she was brought together with a large number of the Surrealists in a state of banishment in New York. She before long moved to Mexico, where she served to establish the Womens Liberation Movement and eventually spent an incredible remainder. Carringtons work focuses on images of otherworldliness and witchcraft, and regularly manages critical repeating pictures. Carrington likewise composed fiction, including The Hearing Trumpet (1976), for which she is most popular. <img information srcset=https://www.thoughtco.com/thmb/9Q3HBXis3Nt_V0CMYc3P5zhKPw8=/300x0/filters:no_upscale():max_bytes(150000):strip_icc()/GettyImages-537566555-5c91587246e0fb000146ae0f.jpg 300w, https://www.thoughtco.com/thmb/2j0obsQN5mQnC2KTbDTWEd4txiA=/1041x0/filters:no_upscale():max_bytes(150000):strip_icc()/GettyImages-537566555-5c91587246e0fb000146ae0f.jpg 1041w, https://www.thoughtco.com/thmb/ZSi9TKMv3M4rt-mYCAEW5arrCvo=/1782x0/filters:no_upscale():max_bytes(150000):strip_icc()/GettyImages-537566555-5c91587246e0fb000146ae0f.jpg 1782w, https://www.thoughtco.com/thmb/_nN-JLV_CcodtUHGJ87EChUWmJY=/3264x0/filters:no_upscale():max_bytes(150000):strip_icc()/GettyImages-537566555-5c91587246e0fb000146ae0f.jpg 3264w information src=https://www.thoughtco.com/thmb/Ut43luvXvsP7UM-aKH_LoKMnXJ4=/3264x2448/filters:no_upscale():max_bytes(150000):strip_icc()/GettyImages-537566555-5c91587246e0fb000146ae0f.jpg src=//:0 alt=Sculpture by Leonora Carrington in Mexico City class=lazyload information click-tracked=true information img-lightbox=true information expand=300 id=mntl-sc-square image_1-0-31 information following container=true /> Model by Leonora Carrington in Mexico City.  Meret Oppenheim Swiss craftsman Meret Oppenheim was conceived in Berlin in 1913. At the episode of the First World War, her family moved to Switzerland, where she started to contemplate workmanship before moving to Paris. It was in Paris that she got familiar with the Surrealist circle. She knew Andrã © Breton, was quickly impractically engaged with Max Ernst, and demonstrated for Man Ray’s photos. Oppenheim was most popular for her collection mold, which united unique discovered articles so as to come to a meaningful conclusion. She is generally well known for her Dã ©jeuner en Fourrure likewise called Objet, a teacup lined in hide, which was displayed at MoMA’s â€Å"Fantastic Art, Dada, and Surrealism† and was supposedly the principal expansion to the assortment of the Museum of Modern Art by a lady. Objet turned into a symbol of the Surrealist development, and however it is liable for Oppenheim’s acclaim, its prosperity has regularly eclipsed her other broad work, which incorporates painting, figure, and adornments. Despite the fact that she was injured by the early achievement of Objet, Oppenheim started to work again during the 1950s, following quite a few years. Her work ËÅ"has been the subject of various reviews far and wide. Frequently tending to subjects of female sexuality, Oppenheim’s work stays a significant touchstone for understanding Surrealism all in all. Dora Maar Dora Maar was a French Surrealist picture taker. She is maybe generally celebrated for her photo Pã ¨re Ubu, a closeup of an armadillo, which turned into a notable picture for Sur

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Byzantine Civilization of the Middle Ages

Byzantine Civilization of the Middle Ages In the fifth century AD, the relentless Roman Empire tumbled to attacking brutes and complex inside weights. The land that had been midway represented for quite a long time broke down into various warring states. The wellbeing and benefits delighted in by certain inhabitants of the domain evaporated to be supplanted by a steady condition of risk and vulnerability; others simply exchanged one lot of day by day dread for another. Europe was dove into what Renaissance researchers would mark a dim age. However Byzantium remained. The Empire of Byzantium was the eastern segment of the Roman Empire, which was separated in 395 A.D. Its capital of Constantinople, situated on a landmass, was normally secure from intrusion on three sides, and its fourth side was braced with a system of three dividers that withstood direct assault for over a thousand years. Its steady economy gave a solid military and, along with a plenteous food gracefully and progressed structural designing, an elevated requirement of living. Christianity was immovably dug in Byzantium, and education was more far reaching there than in some other country in the medieval times. In spite of the fact that the transcendent language was Greek, Latin was additionally genuinely normal, and at one point every one of the seventy-two of the universes realized dialects were spoken to in Constantinople. Scholarly and masterful undertakings flourished. It is not necessarily the case that the Byzantine Empire was a desert spring of harmony in the desert of the dangerous medieval times. Unexpectedly, its long history is set apart by various wars and exceptional inside struggle. Its official outskirts extended and shrank a few times as its rulers endeavored to reestablish the domain to its previous brilliance or fended off intruders (or at times endeavored both at the same time). The punitive framework was so unforgiving as to be seen by western crusaders no aliens to mutilation and other extraordinary measures in their own frameworks of equity as exceedingly savage. All things considered, Byzantium remained the most steady country of the medieval times. Its focal area between western Europe and Asia advanced its economy and its way of life as well as permitted it to fill in as a boundary against forceful brutes from the two zones. Its rich historiographical custom (unequivocally impacted by the congregation) safeguarded antiquated information whereupon mind blowing craftsmanship, engineering, writing and innovative accomplishments were assembled. It's anything but a by and large unwarranted suspicion that the Renaissance couldn't have thrived were it not for the preparation laid in Byzantium. The investigation of Byzantine human advancement is obviously huge in the investigation of medieval world history. To overlook it is much the same as contemplating the old style period without thinking about the social wonder of antiquated Greece. Lamentably, much (yet fortunately not all) recorded examination concerning the medieval times has done recently that. Antiquarians and understudies regularly centered around the fall of the Western Roman Empire and the various changes in Europe without ever once looking at Byzantium. It was regularly erroneously accepted that the Byzantine Empire was a static express that had little effect on the remainder of the medieval world. Luckily, this view is changing, and an incredible abundance of data concerning Byzantine Studies has as of late been delivered a lot of it accessible on the net. Specific Byzantine TimelineHighlights from the dynastic history of the Eastern Roman Empire. Byzantine Studies IndexA staggered catalog of valuable destinations about the individuals, places, craftsmanship, design, strict history, military history and general history of the Eastern Roman Empire. Additionally incorporates maps and helpful assets for the expert. Recommended ReadingUseful and instructive books about the Eastern Roman Empire, from general accounts to histories, craftsmanship, militaria, and other intriguing points. The Forgotten Empire is copyright  © 1997 by Melissa Snell and authorized to About.com. Consent is allowed to duplicate this article for individual or study hall utilize just, given that the URL is incorporated. For reproduce consent, if it's not too much trouble contact Melissa Snell.

Monday, July 27, 2020

Cloud Audit And Compliance Essay Example

Cloud Audit And Compliance Essay Example Cloud Audit And Compliance â€" Essay Example > The paper “ Cloud Audit And Compliance” is an excellent example of an essay on information technology. Cloud audit is the science of computing that involves storing information online, by means of the internet. This technological advancement has numerous benefits such as the creation of worldwide data accessory, where one can get the data from any part of the world through the internet. The service providers of the cloud audit and computing have information backup, which ensures that no information can be lost whatsoever. The Cloud Service Provider or (CSP) keep prices low by using sites in countries with lower cost. However, this science of computing has raised different arguments, creating varied perspective among the Cloud service providers and their customers. As argued out by ALI (2012), the customers doubt the Privacy Compliance of the CSP. Various nations have varying rights regarding the data that you hold about their citizen. The customers are not assured of the priva cy of their data. Typically, an individual can ask to see this data or have this data destroyed whereas this data must be confidential and not have been shared with other parties without the express permission of the individual. However, Public Cloud-based data has additional challenges. This aspect has been caused by the varying regulations between countries. Customers anticipate that with stricter privacy controls forced by law in their nations, the future of the Cloud Computing will ensure the privacy of their information. On the same issue, geographical compliance is a challenge to the CSP. The science of cloud computing is advancing swiftly, while the regulations on this service remain to differ regionally. The compliance of the CSP on these regulations is far much opposite since they seem unaware or uninterested in current regulations. These regulations lie of the basis of where the data is stored, where the data is processed or where the individual resides that the data con cerns. However, the compliance issues with cloud computing seem to be coming to an ultimate solution as, Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), Directorate for Science, Technology, and Industry is implementing guidelines on the protection of privacy and trans-border flows of personal data to ensure that the privacy of the customers is achieved (Bachlechner, Thalmann Maier 2014).

Friday, May 22, 2020

Letter For My Life Review - 1324 Words

For my Life Review, I selected Mr. B.G. I chose him because he has experienced a great deal in his life, even serving in the Vietnam War, making him an interesting interviewee. Mr. B.G was born on March 8, 1944 in New England, Arkansas. He was the youngest of eleven children, four girls and seven boys. He grew up with both of his parents; all of them lived together in a small two bedroom farm house. Although they did not have a lot of money, his parents tried to provide him with a happy childhood. One of his fondest memories is playing instruments on the back porch late into the night. Going into his teenage years, he was very close with this older brother Billy, who was closest to his age. They did most all their activities together.†¦show more content†¦This spontaneous psychological event is seen especially when one is confronted by death or a major crisis, although some individuals may not be fully aware of it and may even deny that it is happening at all. The intensity and emphasis placed on putting one s life in order is most striking in old age.†(Butler, 1963). A life review is more formal, organized and often involves study and analysis, verses ordinary remembering which is often informal and may not involve in depth study. According to an article entitled, Life review and reminiscence: Essential tasks for positive aging, ordinary remembering maybe occur when looking back at old photos or even telling stories about fun things we use to do as children. Both a life review and ordinary remember look at elements of a person’s past. They both have share a mutual goal of wanting to obtain information about a person’s life, but a life review will often include regrets or conflicts the person previously experienced, such as not traveling more or not resolving a conflict with someone before their death. There are several benefits and goals to a life review that include, educating the interviewer, allowing them to see history through the eyes of people who actually lived it. Second, it is â€Å"intended to empower older adults and those facing end-of-life issues to find hope, value, and meaning inShow MoreRelatedCreating Your Career Plan By Henry Wadsworth873 Words   |  4 PagesCreating Your Career Plan Henry Wadsworth Longfellow penned one of my favorite sayings: â€Å"The heights by great men reached and kept, were not obtained by sudden flight, but they, while their companions slept, were toiling upward in the night† (Bill n.d.). My ninth grade English teacher had a new quote or adage for us to learn at the start of every class. I owe her for teaching me the definition of the word: Gumption, as well as introducing me to quotes that I have used to push myself when I thoughtRead MoreThe Requirements Of English 111 Essay1509 Words   |  7 Pagesthat a new college student is required to take. The objectives of English 111 are for the students to develop adequate writing skills among a variety of genres. The genres written about include a narrative, analysis, argument, evaluative, business letter, memorandum, bibliography, and report. By the end of the course, students are expected to master thesis development, revision, and writing as a recursive process. Along with learning a variety of writing strategies, students benefitted the most duringRead MoreMy Career Self Assessment Worksheet1298 Words   |  6 PagesUse your Precision and Sequence to document and reflect on the results of your TypeFocus assessment to gain more insight into your personality, interests, values, and suggested careers for your personality type. Prepare: Take a moment to carefully review your TypeFocus assessment results. Think about your personality type and what characteristics are associated with it. Do you find yourself displaying those characteristics often? The results also suggest careers that suit your personality type. ThinkRead MoreThe Autobiography By Frederick Douglass1632 Words   |  7 PagesThe autobiography by Frederick Douglass is very interesting. It talks about his life and his contribution to the abolition movement. This is an incredible tell perseverance to be with his love that is free in the north and to help others that have been in captivity. Before the book starts he gives a pretty face by William Lloyd Garrison and a letter from Wend ale Phillips. He s done this because he wants people to know that he is a runaway slave that is smart and able to write in his book isRead More Response of Fredrick Douglass to Uncle Toms Cabin by Harriet Beecher Stowe964 Words   |  4 Pageshis narrative entitled Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave published in 1845. Frederick Douglass also produced an African American newspaper, Frederick Douglass Paper, which highlighted the reception and critiques of Harriet Beecher Stowes Uncle Toms Cabin. Frederick Douglass praised Uncle Toms Cabin through not only his writing but in the critiques and letters contained in his newspaper. It is important to look at these reviews to understand Douglass intentions. HoweverRead MoreHow Does Phonics Develop Early Reading and How Should Phonics Be Taught?1512 Words   |  7 Pageswell as my experience in schools while on place ment with my foundation two class. There are two methods of teaching phonics in the classroom both Synthetic Phonics and Analytical Phonics. I will be concentrating more on Synthetic Phonics as it is considered to be â€Å"the best method for teaching reading.† (DfE 2010, p11) Children are taught to read and spell during the same period. They are taught the individual correspondences between sounds that are known as phonemes and written letters, whichRead MoreWriting As A Writing Form1294 Words   |  6 Pagesyour resume and cover letter must be typed. There are no exceptions to this rule. Ever! When I read this, it instantly made sense to me. The resume and cover letter is the first thing that the employer will see as far as first impressions, and you always want to make a great first impression. If you have shabby handwriting, typing is the next best thing to do, so that the information you are presenting to the employer is nice and neat and easy to read. Your cover letter and resume must be printedRead MoreThe Life and Writings of Jane Austen Essay1494 Words   |  6 Pagesaround the world through her English derived stories, comical and witty writing style, and her ability to draw inferences from her personal life into her novels. Jane Austen was born on December 16, 1775 to George and Cassandra Austen. Her mother, Cassandra Austen, was born to a higher ranked family. But after marrying Mr. Austen, she began a very domestic life. Her father, George Austen, was a reverend and sought to be from a lower rank than her mother, but he managed to take care of the growingRead MoreAn Honest Awai Copywriting Program Review By Professional Copywriter Dan Furman1714 Words   |  7 Pageshonest AWAI Copywriting Program Review by Professional Copywriter Dan Furman On this page, I’ll be reviewing a popular home-business opportunity / product. In this case, a copywriting product. Quick note: This is an honest, unbiased review. In interest of full disclosure, I am an affiliate, and will get a small commission if you buy it through the link at the bottom of the page. Believe me, it’s not enough to risk tainting my name in any way. That’s why my review below is as honest as possible.Read MoreMy College English Class and What I learned809 Words   |  3 Pagespapers the night before, barely look over them and making few changes. This course encouraged me to outline, write a rough draft and constantly review then finalization the paper. Peer review before this class I though was pointless because most student hardly pay attention to the paper and usually wrote â€Å"good job.† The students in the class actually read my paper and gave honest feedback and ways to improve it. Also to have a teacher read your draft and give feedback with what is wrong and ways to

Saturday, May 9, 2020

Review Of Francis Scott Fitzgerald s The Great Gatsby

David Orta Honors American Literature St. John s College High School 8/22/15 Francis Scott Fitzgerald Francis Scott Fitzgerald was a vital figure to literature, not only was he a novelist, but in addition he was a poet, playwright, screenwriter, copywriter, and author of short stories. He was truly a trailblazer who paved the way for authors to come. Modernism means a style or movement that aims to break with traditional forms. Fitzgerald wrote during the time period of modernism. Modernism partook primarily in Europe from the early to mid twentieth century. Modernism symbolizes the introduction of new ways to express oneself as well as the separation from traditional ways. One major idea that was corroborated throughout many written items during this time period was the idea of self awareness. Self awareness also known as self consciousness, is when one is extremely aware of their own actions, feelings, and thoughts. One of the biggest driving factors for this belief of self consciousness was the devastating effects from World War One. Many artists and authors were striving to cut ties with the previous beliefs and traditions in their specific field. They wanted to stand out and start new trends. In the Victorian age there was a massive increase in the overall knowledge of the general population due to education ref orms. This increase in knowledge led to a constant hunger for more and more knowledge. One way people cured this craving was with literature.Show MoreRelatedThe Great Gatsby By F. Scott Fitzgerald1569 Words   |  7 Pages 2016 Fantastic Fitzgerald The greatest American writers have their places in history and their stories forever passed down to new generations. Their stories are easily relatable and understandable. One of the most memorable authors is F. Scott. Fitzgerald. His writings during the 1920’s give perspective to the 1920’s atmosphere: most notably in this novel, The Great Gatsby. The environment has influenced his creative mind set and has caused his writing skills to show. Fitzgerald is so fascinatedRead MoreThe Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald1393 Words   |  6 PagesF. Scott Fitzgerald was the model of the American image in the nineteen twenties. He had wealth, fame, a beautiful wife, and an adorable daughter; all seemed perfect. Beneath the gilded faà §ade, however, was an author who struggled with domestic and physical difficulties that plagued his personal life and career throughout its short span. This author helped to launch the theme that is so prevalent in his work; the human instinct to yearn for more, into the forefront of American literature, where itRead MoreThe Great Gatsby By F. Scott Fitzgerald2390 Words   |  10 Pages Francis Scott Key Fitzgerald Francis Scott Key Fitzgerald is an American short story writer and novelist who lived in the period between 24th September 1994 to 21st December 1940; his works are considered to be the paradigmatic compositions of the Jazz Age. He is a well-known member of the â€Å"Lost Generation† of the 20th century. During his life, he completed a total of four novels; Beautiful and Damned, This Side of Paradise, Tender Is the Night and The Great Gatsby (the most popular of all his stories)Read MoreA Straight-forward Story in The Great Gatsby by Francis Scott Fitzgerald553 Words   |  2 PagesFrom the beginning of the The Great Gatsby, Francis Scott Fitzgerald uses the narrator, symbols, and the characters. Using the narrator, symbol, and characters throughout the novel makes up the book that is popular today. The Great Gatsby is a straightforward story. It slowly creates and shows the characteristics of Gatsby. Reading the book through Nick Carraways eyes and his description of what is happening makes the book feel longer than it is (â€Å"Gatsby†, Kenneth).Nick describes what he seesRead MoreThe Great Gatsby By F. Scott Fitzgerald1677 Words   |  7 PagesDean Franjkovic Professor Dr. Kirby Engl-2328-S04 November 3, 2015 Gatsby’s Wealth Wasn’t Enough â€Å"The Great Gatsby† is known as one of the great American novels set in the 1920s and tells a story of a man named Jay Gatsby and how he tried everything he could to get a girl, Daisy Buchanan, to love him only to end up floating in a pool of his own blood. One main aspect to the whole story is the idea of wealth and money. This can be seen at the front of the novel when Nick Carraway, Daisy’s cousinRead MoreThe American Nightmare2241 Words   |  9 Pageslikely I shall ever find again† (Fitzgerald 6). In The Great Gatsby, the narrator, Nick Carraway, was describing his neighbor’s goal of marrying a woman named Daisy. Gatsby, however, did not realize the futility of his dream which ended up costing him his life. The Great Gatsby was written by Fitzgerald in 1925 and takes place in the summer of 1922. The belief that anyone could get rich through hard work was still alive at the time and is evident in the novel as both Gatsby and Carraway are â€Å"new ly rich†Read MoreLiterary Analysis : An Inspector Calls 2046 Words   |  9 Pagesinforms on his friend Frankie Mcphillip in order to get some money from the authorities. This goes against the society that Ireland had during this time period after the Irish Civil War because it is seen as the one of the biggest sins to inform on one s friend, and the word â€Å"informer† is a word that is very frowned upon. Gypo knows as well as anyone the consequences that come from informing, yet he decides to risk his life and his dignity in order to get some money. O’Flaherty’s portrayal of Gypo Nolan

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Architectural Textbook on How to Draw Perspective and to Tiles Free Essays

string(58) " plaNES Room feels more expansive with large floor tiles\." 1 BatHroom projects Bathroom-Tile Design By Lynn Hopkins W alk into a tile showroom, and you may be overwhelmed by the sheer number of colors, materials, finishes, and sizes available. The best way to keep your wits about you is to develop a strategy beforehand for the style of bathroom you plan to create. This plan will help to guide tile selection and installation. We will write a custom essay sample on Architectural Textbook on How to Draw Perspective and to Tiles or any similar topic only for you Order Now Before going to the store, think about the character of your new bath. Are you interested in a traditional bathroom with historical references, something with fixtures and finishes that remind you of an earlier time? Or are you dreaming of something more sleek and modern? Regardless of the style of bathroom you choose, designing a tile installation requires forethought. The accompanying drawings illustrate key areas to consider when developing a tile design and show how the traditional or modern character of the room might influence tile selection and layout. As part of the planning process, I recommend making detailed drawings that show which tiles go where on both the floor and the walls. An accurate, scaled sketch of a section of wall and floor, plus any special corner conditions, makes it much easier to order, lay out, and correctly install the tile. Start by Planning the Walls There are three standard heights to consider when tiling a bathroom wall: wainscot height, shower height, and full-wall height. You may use one, two, or all three of these heights in a single bathroom, depending on the look you are trying to achieve and on your budget. Because tiled walls are more expensive than wallboard, tile often is used only where it is needed most: on the lower portion of the wall that requires water protection. This wainscot is usually between 36 in. and 42 in. tall, enough to provide a backsplash of 4 in. or so above the sink. Tile protects the walls below towel bars from wet towels, and the walls around the toilet from the spray of rambunctious kids. Tiling to wainscot height may be adequate protection around tubs without showers as most splashes occur below this line. In a shower area, however, all enclosure walls should be tiled high enough to protect the walls from water spray, at least 72 in. and preferably to the ceiling. 78 Details for a Traditional Bathroom 3-in. by 6-in. brick tiles 1-in. by 6-in. color band Fixtures are centered on tile layout. 1 Shower enclosure is tiled to at least 72 in. At least 4 in. 36 in. to 42 in. Bullnose tiles 2 Border tiles define limits of the room. 6-in. by 6-in. tiles 1. TURNING CORNERS Profiled edge tiles 2. INSIDE CORNERS A bathroom with traditional characteristics has plumbing fixtures that take their styling cues from an earlier era, generally the 1920s or 1930s. The tile should reinforce these historical references. Small wall tiles, such as 3 in. by 6 in. , 4 in. by 4 in. , and even smaller mosaics, were typical in the old days, in part because the adhesive available could not support tiles that were much larger and heavier than 6 in. q. Traditional styles often celebrate the edges where tile meets wall or where wall meets floor with a border or fancy molding profile. Borders run around the perimeter of the floor and/or walls, defining the limits of the room. Bathroom-Tile Design 79 Choose the Right Tile Tiles finished on only the front face are called field tiles. When installed, they are butted next to each other with grout filling the spaces in between. Wherever wall tile stops short of the ceiling, field tiles should not be installed on the top row because the raw, unfinished edge of the tiles will be exposed. For these locations, use tile with at least one finished edge. Typically, the finished edge is a rounded bullnose shape that makes an elegant transition from tile to wall surface. In bathrooms with traditional styling, this transitional edge frequently is celebrated with a decorative border that intro- duces a band of color, a pattern, a texture, or a special profile (see the drawings on p. 79). Borders Create a Transition Although a decorative border is a great way to handle the tile-to-wall transition, you’ll need to consider how to handle the border when the tile goes from a lower to a taller height. In a traditionally styled bath, I prefer to turn the edging and keep the border moving up, over, and down again, using mitered corners at each turn. I find that a miter creates a crisp, clean look and allows the flexi- Details for a Modern Bathroom The details in a modern room imply expansiveness and continuity. Tile frequently runs continuously from floor to ceiling or from corner to corner. Borders like those found in a traditional bath are seldom used because they would feel constrictive. Luxurious materials, such as stone, are treated simply so that nothing competes with or detracts from the beauty of the aterial itself. Modern designs often use larger tiles—8 in. by 8 in. , 6 in. by 12 in. , 12 in. by 12 in. , or 16 in. by 16 in. —because they feel more expansive. Visual interest comes from the use of multiple materials, patterns, textures, and plane changes. In this example, the height change at the shower area is emphasized with a bump-out separating the plumbing wall into two different planes. Within the shower, 12-in. by 12-in. stone tiles run floor to ceiling. The side edges of the stone tile are mitered to finish the outside corner. Outside the shower, 6-in. by 12-in. ceramic tiles are used on the walls. The running-bond pattern helps to tie the different materials together. 12-in. by 12-in. stone tiles Running-bond pattern is an easy, inexpensive way to add visual interest. Bump-out, 2 in. minimum 6-in. by 12-in. ceramic tiles 3 3. ChaNGING plaNES Room feels more expansive with large floor tiles. You read "Architectural Textbook on How to Draw Perspective and to Tiles" in category "Papers" Inside corner marks transition from large shower tiles to smaller wall tiles. Mitered outside corner 80 Bathroom Projects bility to use border designs without a special corner tile (see the inset drawing on p. 79). Other areas that demand careful planning are corner borders at wall intersections. If your bath has only inside corners, you will need tiles that are finished only on the face and one edge. Outside corners—those that project into the room—require tiles finished on the face, the top, and one side. If you use tile with a profile, you’ll need a special outside-corner tile. Not all tile manufacturers or lines include these special pieces. The baseboard area, at the junction of wall and floor, is another opportunity for a decorative border. If you used a color band at the top of the tiled wall, a second band of color would work well at the bottom. If not, consider a base tile that is taller than the wainscot tiles. You can choose base tiles with a profile that incorporates a radius to meet the floor tiles. cutting the tiles around the perimeter to fit. These guidelines recommend centering the pattern on either a tile or a grout line, depending on which choice results in the largest tiles around the edges of the room. This is a good place to start, but you may want to adjust your design in response to other features in the room. One of the typical ways your eye determines whether a pattern is centered is by comparing the end tiles: If the tiles on each end are equal in size, you assume the pattern is centered. However, if your eye cannot easily compare the end tiles to each other, you’ll look for other cues, such as alignment. Sometimes, especially in large rooms, it is preferable to center tiles along lines of sight or movement. By following this strategy, the tile pattern is centered on the person using the bathroom. Tiles centered on the entry door are centered on the person who walks through that door; wall tiles centered on the sink and on the mirror above are centered on the person looking in that mirror. Tiles centered on the showerhead and control valves also are centered on the person using the shower. If tile has been centered on the key sink and shower walls, the layout frequently is mirrored on the opposite wall. Centering tile on the sink and the shower controls may be difficult if the sink and the shower are on the same continuous wall; but this design should be possible if the distance between the centerline of the shower or tub fittings and the sink is a multiple of the tile size. Mark out the tile design before any rough plumbing work is done; then adjust fixture placements as required for the most attractive finished room. Alignment and centering of fixtures, tiles, and sightlines reinforces the organizing principles of the design. People subconsciously find that reinforcement reassuring and, consequently, attractive. Lynn Hopkins (www. lhopkinsarch. com), an architect specializing in residential design, is based in Lexington, Massachusetts. Floor Tiles Take a Cue From the Walls Floor tiles need to be more durable and slipresistant than wall tiles, so be sure to select a type intended for floor installation. The safety and durability characteristics of floor tiles may give them a different look than that of wall tiles. To tie the two surfaces together visually, use the same color, texture, pattern, or other design feature from the walls in the flooring. In a traditional bath, for instance, you might use a border of the same color on the walls and the floor. Another strategy is a floor patterned with a mix of small and large tiles, where the color of the small tiles matches that of the wall tile. Smaller tiles result in more grout lines, which give the floor more texture and make it less slippery. The additional grout is more susceptible to dirt and mildew, however. Center Tile Layout on Entries and Fixtures Many tile-layout guidelines suggest positioning the layout on the center of the room and Bathroom-Tile Design 81 1 BatHroom projects Details from Great Bathrooms Benches, shelves, and hooks. Don’t overlook the convenience of a small bench where you can sit and shave, shelves that can hold soap and shampoo, and some open wall space for towel hooks and bars. 82 Tile put to good use. Variations in tile size highlight architectural details, while glassblock tiles let in plenty of light. Bold and beautiful. the play of light and color in this bathroom isn’t an accident. t’s what happens when an architect plans a bathroom remodel with an artist. Details from Great Bathrooms 83 accentuate the positive. Large, rectangular porcelain tiles installed vertically draw attention to the shower’s high ceiling while the mosaic-tile floor provides plenty of traction. liven up a bland room. Blue and white mosaics splash color across the sink wall in this st. paul, minnesota, remodel. Color coordination. staying in the same color family ties together the mosaic pebble floor and the wall of sleek subway tiles. Updating a tradition. Designed to capture the calm richness of traditional japanese architecture but with a modern focus, this bathroom was created with wall and shower tiles by casalgrande padana and custom-cut slate floor tiles. 84 Bathroom Projects Balancing the budget. saving on white ceramic floor and wall tile freed up money for the aquacolored glass mosaic wall tile. let loose. a child’s bathroom is a great place to have fun with tile. this bathroom features a whimsical countertop of brightly colored tile. Use tile to differentiate. on the floor, a switch from 13-in. eramic tile to 2-in. tile (by cerim ceramiche) distinguishes the shower from the dry part of the room. on the walls, a mosaic strip (by ceramica tres estilos) adds zip. Details from Great Bathrooms 85 2 KITChen projeCTs Putting Tile to Work in the Kitchen by Lane Meehan O ur black Lab, Bogey, is a walking mud factory and sheds so much that for tile are granite, marble, and limestone, with granite being the hardest. Stone in its natural state is porous, so wherever it’s used in a kitchen, it must be sealed to resist staining and discoloration. Stone tile has color all the way through, so deep scratches won’t expose a different base color. However, a highly polished surface on a stone tile seems to accentuate even the smallest scratches. Stone can be installed on floors, countertops or backsplashes; however, it does tend to be a high-maintenance product. On the other hand, ceramic tile is made from clay rolled flat and either sun-baked or fired in a kiln. There are hundreds of different clays, each with its own characteristics that can vary the tile’s performance. Color is applied to ceramic tile in the form of baked-on glazes that also seal the tile. In the past, ceramic-tile finishes had problems standing up to heavy use and abuse, but with recent technical advances, ceramic tile now performs better than it used to. With most ceramic tile, the color is he should be bald. When it came time to choose tile for our kitchen floor, we looked for tile that would help disguise evidence of Bogey and our three active boys. We chose a tile that looks like stone but in a color and finish that could hide dirt and dog hair until I had a spare moment to run the vacuum. Our choice was based primarily on ease of maintenance, just one consideration when choosing kitchen tile. As a tile-store owner with a background in design, I field questions all the time about incorporating tile into clients’ kitchens. This chapter addresses the questions I am asked most frequently. What Types of Tile Can I Choose From? The two most basic categories of tile are stone and ceramic. Stone tile is a natural product, mined or quarried directly from the earth. The three most common stones used 86 Tile outlines and defines kitchen spaces. a tile border gives the island in this kitchen, designed by Tim Quigley of Minneapolis, its own separate visual space. The backsplash behind the stove forms a functional accent. Putting Tile to Work in the Kitchen 87 just on the surface, so deep scratches expose the clay below. Porcelain is another manmade tile product. Porcelain is much denser than ordinary ceramic, making it harder to scratch and break. But as with stone, the shinier the surface of ceramic or porcelain, the more scratches will show. So I try not to use highgloss tiles anywhere in a kitchen except on backsplashes, areas that are less susceptible to scratching. In the past, porcelain has been more expensive than ceramic, but improvements in technology have reduced the price. Beyond the amount of gloss, tile finishes can vary greatly. Tile finishes are graded by their ability to resist wear due to traffic; a light-industrial tile has a higher durability rating than most residential-grade tiles. Industrial-rated tile is a bit more expensive, but the extra cost makes sense if your kitchen resembles a freeway. In addition to a durability rating, the Tile Council of America (see â€Å"Sources† on p. 94) gives tile a coefficient of friction (COF) rating, which indicates how slippery the surface will be underfoot. But if the tile feels too smooth or too slick to the touch, it will probably be too slippery to use on the floor. How Do Lifestyle and Lighting Affect Choices? The first thing I ask clients about is their family, their lifestyle, and the way their kitchen is going to be used. For example, for a client who has a large family or who does a lot of entertaining, the kitchen is a busy hub with a casual atmosphere. For this kitchen, I might suggest warm-colored tile with perhaps a softer stone look. After the client’s lifestyle, I look at the type of lighting in the kitchen. If it is blessed with a great deal of natural light from windows or skylights, tumbled marble tile or tile with a matte finish will absorb light and create a softer look (see the photo on p. 90). A textured surface on the tile softens the effect even further. On the other hand, tile with a glossy finish reflects light and helps brighten areas of a kitchen that are dimly lighted or that receive little or no natural light. Remember that glossy tile used in a kitchen with a lot of light, either natural or artificial, requires more frequent cleaning because fingerprints and water spots tend to show up more. When choosing tile, I also look at the color and finish of the cabinets and countertops. If the counters and cabinets have a matte or satin finish, then I try to keep the same feel in the floors and the backsplash. By the same token, if the kitchen has the Tile Offers Almost Endless Options Multipurpose porcelain Ceramic wall tile with blue crackle glaze Commercial ceramic wall tile Rosso-Verona tumbled marble Handmade glazed wall tile Handmade sanded floor tile Porcelain floor tile Limestone tile Stone look-alike ceramic tile Marble floor or wall tile 88 Kitchen Projects Ceramic Tile: Porcelain vs. Nonporcelain l tiles made of clay and cured by heat are ceramic tiles. However, ceramic tile is best understood by dividing it into two product classifications: porcelain and nonporcelain. Their availability and look are roughly the same, but their durability is not. Thanks to a balance in the market, porcelain tiles can now be had at nearly the same price as nonporcelain products. a when the tiles are glazed. Also, when some porcelain tiles are glazed, they are no longer guaranteed to be frostproof. nonporcelain tile is easier to work with Nonporcelain tiles are made primarily of clay mixed with minerals and water. The material is then fired to solidify the tiles into a bisque form. This process creates tile that isn’t as hard as porcelain, so it can be worked more easily with basic snap cutters and nippers instead of a wet saw. In most cases, a sealer and a glaze are applied to the surface of nonporcelain tile to create color and texture before the tile receives a second firing. The glaze applied to nonporcelain tile can make it extremely durable, but never as durable as porcelain. Nonporcelain tile’s main weakness is that it has a water-absorption rate of greater than 0. %. As a result, the tile doesn’t perform nearly as well as unglazed porcelain tile in outdoor freeze/thaw environments. porcelain tile is more durable Porcelain tiles are created by mixing porcelain clay and very finely ground sand, and curing them with high heat and pressure. Porcelain tile is denser and harder than nonporcelain tile and has a lower water-absorption rate of 0. 5% or less. Porcelainâ€⠄¢s density makes it highly resistant to physical damage, while its low absorption rate makes the tile frost resistant, allowing it to be used outdoors. Unglazed porcelain tile is sought after for its full-body characteristics, which means its color remains consistent throughout the tile. Surface scratches and damage are less noticeable as a result, a benefit that diminishes The top choice when strength matters most. although nonporcelain tiles can be quite durable, none are as resilient as porcelain. Buy what looks good. even though damage to nonporcelain tiles is more noticeable than with some porcelain tile, they can be purchased in grades that are perfectly suited for high-contact areas like kitchen counters and floors. Putting Tile to Work in the Kitchen 89 Tile can act as a dimmer switch. This kitchen gets lots of light from two sides. The natural colors and matte finish of the tumbled-marble countertop and backsplash help soften the light and cut down on glare in a kitchen with a lot of windows. polished, streamlined look of many contemporary kitchens, I suggest a straightforward tile pattern with a glossy finish. Tile color can make a large contribution toward a warm or cool feel in a kitchen. The earthy tones of limestone or tumbled marble are the warmest of the tile colors, while bright whites and blues tend to be quite cool. But even cool colors can be warmed with colored grout. For example, an ivory or off-white grout color can take the cool edge off bright white. The reverse can be true if you’re trying to achieve a formal or industrial feel with gray or blue tile. A steel-gray grout helps create a crisp, cool look. A quick vacuum and an occasional mopping, and you’re off and running. If cooking and entertaining are big parts of your life, then I’d suggest tile that won’t stain if hot grease and oil or an occasional glass of wine is spilled on it. A glazed ceramic tile works best in this situation, but for an Old World look, you can use a real stone, such as limestone. If you select a stone-tile floor, be sure to treat it with a good sealer according to the manufacturer’s directions. We recommend either Miracle Sealants’ Porous Plus or One Master Marble and Stone Care’s Gold Shield (see â€Å"Sources† on p. 94) for sealing stone tile. No matter what tile you choose for your kitchen floor, the grout should also be sealed. To make the grout more impervious to spills and stains, I recommend starting with a latex-modified grout or one that is mixed with a latex additive instead of water. Once the grout has cured properly, a sealer such as Miracle Sealants’ Porous Plus will fight off most food incursions. Another grout option is epoxy, which is stain resistant and does not require sealing. But because epoxy is harder to work with for the installer, we generally use it for smaller Will My Three Boys and the Family Dog Hurt My Tile Floor? A client’s lifestyle has the biggest bearing on the choice of floor tile. If you’d rather spend time with your three growing boys than take care of your kitchen floor, I suggest tile that hides a multitude of sins (and dirt) and always seems to look nice, such as a ceramic-stone look-alike (see the photo on the facing page). 90 Kitchen Projects No time for cleaning? For busy, active families with kids and pets, consider a tile floor with a lot of color variations such as this stone look-alike. It stays better looking longer between cleanings. areas, such as countertops. With some tile, such as limestone, epoxy grout is not recommended, so be sure to check with manufacturers’ suggestions. some sort of threshold to create a clean transition into the next room. Tile thickness can also affect doors that swing into the kitchen, as well as appliances, such as dishwashers or trash compactors, that have to fit under the countertops in a kitchen. How Does a Tile Floor Relate to Adjacent Rooms? The kitchen-floor tile should help establish a visual flow into the surrounding areas, so I ask clients about the colors and materials on the floors of the rooms that are adjoining the kitchen. For example, if the kitchen floor joins up with a dark wood floor in the dining room, consider using tile with a warm, medium color to cut down on the visual contrast between rooms. If the kitchen floor meets colored carpet in an adjacent room, keep in mind that you’ll probably change the carpet at some point, so choose a neutral tile color that will go with future carpet choices. Tile thickness is another consideration. Whether the kitchen floor butts up against other existing tile, hardwood floors, or carpet, the tile installer will need to install Can Tile Make My Tiny Kitchen Look Bigger? Tile layout can have a big impact on a room’s appearance. While a parallel or straight pattern can intensify the narrowness of a kitchen, a diagonal tile pattern makes a room look wider (see the sidebar on p. 93). Tile size can also affect the appearance of the room. The smaller the tile, the busier the grout–joint pattern. The simple grout–joint pattern you get with larger 10-in. to 12-in. tiles can make a small room look larger. Smaller 4-in. to 6-in. iles on a floor can have the opposite effect, creating a mosaic pattern or a cobblestone look. Clipping the corners of square tiles creates hexagons or octagons with small square spaces left between. The small tiles (called Putting Tile to Work in the Kitchen 91 dots) that fill the spaces can introduce a dash of color to the floor in a patter n that breaks up the simple straight lines. Irregular tile patterns such as block random (using three sizes of tile) or a pinwheel pattern can help unify a kitchen that has many entrances and exits. These patterns also work well to blend together tile that is highly varied in color. A tile border on the floor can make a kitchen look cozier by bringing the eye in or by creating a frame around the kitchen table or an island (see the photo on p. 87). slab. And with granite tile, it’s easy to add a border to accent or complement the color of the stone. One drawback to stone tile on a countertop is the edges. Although you can round over the edges, granite tile is thinner than a solid slab (3? 8 in. to 1? 2 in. compared with 11? 4 in. , normal thickness for a granite slab), so it’s tougher to get the same full-slab look. Another drawback is not being able to install an undermount sink with granite tile. Although the tight grout joints of granite tile create a good, smooth work surface, machine-made ceramic tile with standard grout joints makes a slightly rougher work surface. Handmade tile is usually installed with wider grout joints that are charming, but its inherently bumpy surface can be difficult to work on and can cause wine glasses and bowls to tip over (see the photos at left). The edges of a tile countertop can be addressed in various ways. Continuing the tile over the edge gives the countertop a thick look. Relief tile, such as a rope pattern, can turn countertop edges into a visual focal point. Wooden edges that match or complement cabinets are also popular. As on floors, borders on countertops can add decoration. But if it’s used in too large an area or if a lot of items are stored on the counter, a border can be lost or distracting. Tile can also be combined with other types of surfaces for a dramatic look (see the photo on p. 90). For instance, the savings from tiling most of the countertop might leave enough money for a solid slab of granite in the sink area for an undermount sink. A stone slab or a wood surface on only the island could make a bold statement while providing a smooth surface for an informal eating area. Is Tile OK for a Kitchen Countertop? Granite-slab countertops have long been popular in high-end kitchens. Tile countertops, both ceramic and stone, have some of the same attributes as slabs, such as durability and heat resistance, but at less than half the cost, depending on the tile you choose. Granite tile can be installed with tight grout joints to give the impression of a solid Handmade tile is pretty but uneven. The irregular surface of handmade ceramic tile is a challenge to work on and can be hazardous to wine glasses. Cutting boards should always be used on tile countertops. 92 Kitchen Projects Tile Patterns at Work he right pattern can make a kitchen look wider. Floor tile installed in a straight pattern makes a narrow room seem narrower (see the left photo below) while tile in a T diagonal pattern softens the tunnel effect of a long, narrow kitchen, making it seem wider (see the right photo below). Can Tile Be Used as a Cutting Board? Although few tile or stone surfaces can stand up to a sharp kitchen knife, most hold up well under other kitchen rigors such as abuse from pots and pans. Limestone scratches easily, but those scratches can be sanded out. Surfaces such as glossy tile or highly polished granite tend to show marks more readily, and their scratches are harder to remove or cover up. Stone or ceramic tile with a matte finish tends to hide scratches and surface abrasions better. Stone tile is also porous, so it has to be sealed properly to resist staining from things such as red wine and grease. And some ceramic tiles, as well as polished stone such as granite or marble, can lose their shine when exposed to some food acids. As in floors, latex-modified grout should be used on tiled countertops along with a good coat of grout sealer. Again, epoxy grout, which costs a little more and is a little harder to install, will make the grout impenetrable. Should the Backsplash Blend or Make a Splash? A tile backsplash is the spot where you can be really creative with tile in the kitchen (see the photos on p. 94). Because a backsplash functions to protect the wall from splashes and splatters that come from cooking and preparing food, the only prerequisite is that backsplash tile be easy to keep clean. Beyond that, the choices become mainly aesthetic. I always ask clients how much stuff they plan to keep on their countertops. Toasters, microwaves, and canisters tend to block the backsplash, and in that case, the backsplash just provides a backdrop of color and tex- Putting Tile to Work in the Kitchen 93 sources Miracle Sealants Company 800-350-1901 www. miraclesealants. com ture. I usually recommend extending the tile from the countertop all the way to the bottoms of the wall cabinets so that the backsplash acts as a visual connection between the upper and lower cabinets. Borders usually work best above long stretches of counter that are uninterrupted by windows or appliances. And when installed three-quarters of the way up the backsplash, a border won’t get lost near the countertop or under the wall cabinets. At that height, a border will usually clear the height of the toaster or a bowl of fruit for a continuous line. If the client is thinking of having decorative tiles scattered randomly throughout the backsplash, I suggest taping playing cards to the wall at random to see if the effect works in that particular kitchen. Playing cards can also be used in a line to test the visual power of a border. Isn’t Tile Expensive? Tile varies greatly in price, and budget is a concern for the vast majority of my clients. So here’s my strategy for keeping costs down. First, use reasonably priced machinemade tile for large areas in the kitchen. Then there will be money left for those handmade borders, small murals, or strategically placed accent tiles that will give your kitchen a rich look without breaking the bank (see the right photo below). Installation prices can vary greatly depending on the type of tile, the layout, and the conditions of the existing floors and walls. A tile installer can explain what your options are and how much each option costs. Even if you opt for a less expensive installation, always seal the tile. Sealing tile is pretty easy, so you can save a little by doing it yourself. Spend some money on a good sealer. Lane Meehan is a tile maker and designer of decorative tiles. She and her husband, Tom, own and manage Cape Cod Tileworks in Harwich, Massachusetts. orous plus One Master Marble and Stone Care 760-406-1097 www. onemastermarble. com Gold shield The Tile Council of America 864-646-8453 www. tileusa. com Tile Art and Accents he backsplash of cows in a pasture (see the left photo below) in this kitchen designed by Randy Fritz of Lakeside, Calif. , combines the art of Roger Dunham of Petaluma, Calif. , with the practicality of T ceramic tile. Random decorative tiles in a backsplash of less expens ive, machine-made tile (see the right photo below) give this kitchen a colorful accent. 94 Kitchen Projects How to cite Architectural Textbook on How to Draw Perspective and to Tiles, Papers

Tuesday, April 28, 2020

King Lear - Blindness Essays - King Lear, British Films, Films

King Lear - Blindness In Shakespeare's "King Lear" the issue of sight against blindness is a recurring theme. In Shakespearean terms, being blind does not refer to the physical inability to see. Blindness is here a mental flaw some characters posses, and vision is not derived solely from physical sight. King Lear and Gloucester are the two prime examples Shakespeare incorporates this theme into. Each of these characters' lack of vision was the primary cause of the unfortunate decisions they made, decisions that they would eventually come to regret. The blindest of all was undoubtedly King Lear. Because of his high position in society he is supposed to be able to distinguish good from bad: unfortunately, his lack of insight prevented him to do so. However, his "vision" is clouded by his lack of insight. Since he cannot see into other people's characters, he can never identify them for who they truly are. When Lear is angered by Cordelia, Kent tries to reason with Lear, who is too stubborn to remain open-minded. Lear responds to Kent's opposition with, "Out of my sight!" to which Kent responds: "See better, Lear, and let me still remain" (Act I, sc I, l. 160). Kent, once banished, creates a disguise for himself and is eventually hired by Lear as a servant. The king's vision is so superficial that he is easily deceived by Kent's changed appearance. He can never see his trusted servant for whom he really is. He only learns of Kent's noble and honest character just prior to his death, when his vision is cleared. By this time, however, it is too late for an honest relationship to be salvaged. Lear's vision is also blurred by his lack of direction in life, and his poor ability to predict the outcome of his actions. This, in addition to his lack of insight into other people, condemns his relationship with his most beloved daughter, Cordelia. When Lear asks his daughters who loves him most, he already thinks that Cordelia has the most love for him. However, when Cordelia says: "I love your Majesty According to my bond, no more nor less (Act I, sc. I,ln. 94-95) Lear cannot see what these words really mean. Goneril and Regan are only putting on an act. Their love for their father is not as great as they say. Cordelia's words show that she has seen her sisters' facade, and she does not want to associate her true love with their false love. Lear, however, is fooled by Goneril and Regan into thinking that they love him and Cordelia does not. Kent, who has sufficient insight, is able to see through the dialogue and knows that Cordelia is the only daughter who actually loves Lear. He tries to convince Lear of this, saying "Answer my life my judgment, Thy youngest daughter does not love thee least" (Act I, sc I, ln. 153-154). Lear, however, only sees what is on the surface, and cannot understand the deeper intentions of his daughters' speeches. As his anger grows from the argument, his foresight diminishes and he becomes increasingly rash and narrow-minded. When Lear disowns Cordelia and banishes her from his kingdom he says "?we Have no such daughter, nor shall ever see That face of hers again" (Act I, scene I, lines 264-266) Ironically, he later discovers that Cordelia is the only daughter he wants to see, asking her to "forget and forgive" (Act IV, scene VII, line 85). By this time, he has finally started to gain some direction, and his sight is cleared. But it is too late. His lack of precognition had condemned him from the beginning, and actually cost him his and his daughter's life. In Lear's character one sees that physical sight does not necessary guarantee clear sight. Gloucester however shows that physical blindness does not bring about lack of insight into other people's intentions. Prior to the loss of his eyes, Gloucester's vision was very much like Lear's. He was unable to see what was going on around him. Instead, he only saw what was presented to him on the surface. His blindness denies him the ability to see the goodness of Edgar and the evil of Edmund. Although Edgar was the good and loving